Monday, 25 November 2013

C3OIT PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 2007 admission Syllabus Third Semester

 C3OIT PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS  ( 2007 admission Syllabus ) Third Semester
Module 1 (21 hrs)
Basic statistical concepts, Types of variables, population and sample, Parameter and statistic, Census versus sampling, Methods of sampling- Random and non random sampling methods.
Frequency distributions- measures of central tendency, m easui-es of dispersion, morn ents, skeess and kurtosis.
Correlation and Regression analysis- Types of Correlation, Methods of studying simple correlation, properties of correlation coefficient.
Module 2(16 hrs)
Different approaches to probability, conditional probability, Addition and multiplication theorems, Baye’ s theorem, simple problems.
Random variables and probability distribution- discrete and continuous- distribution function and its properties(without proof) Extension to bivariate case (elementary concept only)
3(16 hrs)
Expectation and its properties, Mean, variance and moments in terms of expectation, Moment Generation Function and characteristic function simple problem, Standard distribution and statistical inference.
Standard probability distribution- Binomial, Poisson, Uniform and Normal- mean, variance and M.G.F.
problems relating to practical applications.
Module 4(11 hrs)
Central Limit Theorem (without proof) and its applications, Sampling distributions and standard error(concept only), Distribution of the sample mean,
t, X2, and F statistic- definition and properties (without proof)
Estimation- Concept of Point and Interval estimation- Point estimate and its properties Test of signilicance- Elementary ideas and simple problems.
Text Book
Probability and Statistics Schaiini’s outline Series.
1. Hogg RN. Craig A.L.
, Introduction to Mathematical Statistica, American Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
2. Yulg, U.G., Kendoll, M.G; An Introduction to Theory of Statistics, Chailes Griffin & Co. Ltd
3. Draper N.A.,Srnjtli H,; Applied Regression Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
4. S.P. Gupta ,Statistical Methods.
5. William Mendenhall, Robert J Beaver, BarbaraM Beaver, Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Thomson 2007.


 G 9692 


Sixth Semester 
(2007 and 2008 Admissions—Supplementary) 
Time Three Hours                                                                      Maximum : 75 Marks 

Part A 
Answer any five questions. 
Each question carries 3 marks. 

1. What is a multiprocessor system?
2. Write a note on linear pipelining.
3. What are interconnection networks?
4. What is a multiprocessor operating system?
5. What are data flow graphs?
6. List
two applications of parallel processing.
(5 x 3= 15 marks) 
Part B 
Answer any four questions. 
Each question carries 5 marks. 

7. How can you achieve parallelism in uniprocessor systems?
8. Describe the working of instruction pipelines.
9. Explain the structure of multiprocessor system.
10. Discuss the multiprocessor programming.
11. What are the advantages of data flow graphs?
12. Explain the inter process communication in multiprocessor systems.
(4 x 5 = 20 marks) 
Part C 
Answer any two questions. 
Each question carries 20 marks. 

13. Describe Feng’s classification of parallel computers.
14. Explain vector processing with an example.
15. Discuss an algorithm for array processors.
16. Explain the architecture of data flow computers.
[2 x 20 = 40 marks] 

Monday, 15 July 2013

Short Note Based on MG University Computer Graphics and Multimedia Syllabus B.Sc Computer Science

 Data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction
 -Lossless compression
--Reduces bits by identifying and eliminating statistical redundancy
 -Lossy compression
--Dropping nonessential detail
RLE in Text and image
-Run-length encoding
- stored as a single data value and count, rather than as the original run
-eg: 12W1B12W3B24
- lossless data compression
- used by bitmap and jpeg.
Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW)
- universal lossless data compression algorithm
- gif, tiff, pdf
- Encoding
--A high level view of the encoding algorithm is shown here:
1.Intlize the dictnry 2 contain al strngs f lngth 1. 2.Fnd d lngst strng W in the dctinry tht matchs d current i/p.
3.Emit the dictnry index for W to o/p & remove W from the i/p. 4.Add W folowd by d next symbl in d i/p 2 d dictnry. 5.Go 2 Step 2.

Huffman's Coding
- is an entropy encoding algorithm usd 4 lossless data compression
- The technique works by creating a binary tree of nodes. These can be stored in a regular array, the size of which depends on the number of symbols. A node can be either a leaf node or an internal node. Initially, all nodes are leaf nodes, which contain the symbol itself, the weight of the symbol and optionally, a link to a parent node which makes it easy to read the code starting from a leaf node. Internal nodes contain symbol weight, links to two child nodes and the optional link to a parent node. As a common convention, bit '0' represents following the left child and bit '1' represents following the right child. A finished tree has up to  leaf nodes and  internal nodes. A Huffman tree that omits unused symbols produces the most optimal code lengths.

Graphics Interchange Format
-widespread usage World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability.
- upport up to 8 bits per pixel
- 256 distinct colors chosen from the 24-bit RGB color space
-LZW Lossless compression
-usg ,anim, ow-color sprite data for games
-JPEG uses a lossy form of compression based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT).
-extension  .jpg and .jpeg, though .jpe, .jfif and .jif 
Software for animation : Presentation , Application(), Authoring, Animation, Web browser, Html editors.
Morphing is a special technique that creates a smooth, controlled transformation of one image into another. The morphing effect is widely used for various tasks ranging from generation of fancy special effects, smoothing transitions between video frames to funny warping of faces and mixing parent's photos for prediction of how their child will look like . A classic example of this sort of transformation is shown in the well-known Black Or White video clip by Michael Jackson, where the faces of different people change one into another.

Explore Different Types of Animation
-2D, 3D and Stop Motion
-Any way to manipulate a sequence of images, frame by frame, is considered a Type of Animation.  All animations  falls into one of these three categories.
-2D animation
The term "2D" refers to animation that is created using two dimensional drawings.
-3D animation
"3D" refers to Computer Generated Images (CGI) that create the illusion of three dimensional space with great accuracy.
-Stop Motion Types of animation
Everything that is shot live, frame by frame, in front or under a camera is called Stop Motion or "Stop Frame" Animation. Clay animations are usually the first thing that comes to mind in this category.

Stage 1: planning
•poor planning results in a loss of money, •with poor planning  an inferior video is created
•Deliverables:, •Proposal -explains the content and identifies the target audience, •Storyboard -graphic organizer of main scenes, •Script -dialogue, narration, audio instructions and visual instructions

Stage 2: set your stage and shoot the footage
•framing and composition
•lighting requirements
•audio, •camera techniques
•lead in and lead out

•Stage 3: edit and enhance your footage
•select and trim clips
•add:, •transitions,
•audio(music, voice over, sound effects), •titles and credits,
•text,credits, graphics and animation
•special effects (filters, green screen)
•render your video, •publish it
Raster-Scan Displays
The most common type of graphics monitor employing a CRT is the raster-scan display, based on television technology. In a raster-scan system, the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. As the electron beam moves across each row, the beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots. Picture definition is stored in a memory area called the refresh buffer or frame buffer. Each screen point is referred to as a pixel. The capability of a raster-scan system to store intensity information for each screen point makes it well suited for the realistic display of scenes containing subtle shading and color patterns.
Random-Scan Displays
 a CRT has the electron beam directed only to the parts of the screen where a picture is to be drawn. These monitors draw a picture one line at a time and for this reason are also referred
to as vector displays. Random-scan systems are designed for line drawing applications and cannot display realistic shaded scenes.

DDA Algorithm
The digital differential analyzer (DDA) is a scan-conversion line algorithm. This algorithm is summarized in the following procedure, which accepts as
input the two endpoint pixel positions. Horizontal and vertical differences between the endpoint positions are assigned to parameters dx and dy. The difference with the greater magnitude determines the value of parameter steps. Starting with pixel position (xa, ya), we determine the offset needed at each step to generate the next pixel position along the line path. We loop through this process steps times. If the magnitude of dx is greater than the magnitude of dy and xa is less than xb, the values of the increments in the x and y directions are 1 and m, respectively. If the greater change is in the x direction, but xa is greater than xb, then the decrements - 1 and -m are used to generate each new point on the line. Otherwise, we use a unit increment (or decrement) in they direction and an x increment
(or decrement) of l / m .

Bresenham's Line Algorithm
An accurate and efficient raster line-generating algorithm, developed by Bresenham, scan converts lines using only incrementa1 integer calculations that can be adapted to display circles and other curves.

Basic attributes of a straight line segment are its type, its width, and its color. Various attribute specifications.
-Line Type
Possible selections for the line-type attribute include solid lines, dashed lines, and dotted lines.
-Line Width
Implementation of line- width options depends on the capabilities of the output device.
-Pen and Brush Options
With some packages, lines can be displayed with pen or brush selections. Options in this category include shape, size, and pattern.
-Line Color
When a system provides color (or intensity) options, a parameter giving the current color index is included in the list of system-attribute values.

Options for filling a defined region include a choice between a solid color or a patterned fill.
-Fill Styles
Areas are displayed with three basic fill styles: hollow with a color border, filled
with a solid color, or Wed with a specified pattern or design.
-Pattern fill
-Soft fill : Modified boundary-fill and flood-filI procedures that are applied to repaint areas so that the fill color is combined with the background colors are referred to as soft-fill or tint-fill algorithms.
-Font, size, color, and orientation
- bold face,  italics, underline

applying translation, rotation, and scaling parameters to reposition and resize two-dimensional objects.
A translation is applied to an object by repositioning it along a straight-line path from one coordinate location to another.
A two-dimensional rotation is applied to an object by repositioning it along a circular path in the xy plane.
A scaling transformation alters the size of an object.

LOCATOR - a device for specifying coordinate position ( x , y)
STROKE- a device for specifying a series of coordinate positions
STRING- a device for specifying text input( Physical Keyboard)
VALUATOR-a device for specifying scalar value:
CHOICE-a device for selecting menu options(with mouse)
PICK-a device for selecting picture components(pick widow)
-LOCATOR: mouse, joystick, trackball, space ball, thumbwheels, dials, a digitizer stylus or hand cursor, or some other cursor-positioning
-STROKE: This class of logical devices is used to input a sequence of coordinate positions. Stroke-device input is equivalent to multiple calls to a locator device. The set of input points is often used to display line sections.
---VALUATOR - scalar values are stores. such rotation angle.

Tuesday, 9 July 2013

PARALLEL PROCESSING MG university question paper

G 7155                                    (Pages :2)                                                        Reg.
Sixth Semester
(New scheme—2007 admissions)
Time : Three Hours                                                                                        Maximum: 75 Marks
Part A
Answer any five questions.
Each question carries
3 marks.
1. What is the purpose of parallel processing?
2. Mention three application areas of vector processing.
3. What is a super computer?
4. What is SIMD?
5. What is a tightly coupled multiprocessor?
6. What is a data flow computer?
Part B
Answer any four questions.
Each question carries
5 marks.
7. Explain the extent of parallelism in uniprocessor systems.
8. Write note on instruction pipelines.
Describe the characteristics of vector processing.
10. Discuss the structure of an array processor.
11. How can you arrange processors in a multiprocessor system?
12. Write a note on data flow graph.
(4 X 5 = 20 marks)
Turn over
2 G7155
Part C
Answer any two questions.
Each question carries
20 marks.
13 (a) Describe the applications of parallel processing. (10 marks)

    (b) Explain Flynn’s classification. (10 marks)
14 (a) What are the principles that should be followed to de8ign a pipelined processors ? (10 marks)
    (b) Discuss the technique of vector processing with an example. (10 marks)
15 (a) Explain an algorithm related to array processors. (10 marks)
     (b) Write a note on multiprocessor operating system. (10 marks)
16 (a) Describe the architecture of dataflow computers. (12 marks)
    (b) Write short note on data flow languages. (8 marks)
[2 x 20 = 40 marks]

sixth semester question paper
Parallel processing previous year model question paper 
Mg university kottayam. 

Sunday, 7 July 2013


G 6003                                            (Pages :2)                                             Reg.

Faculty of Commerce
Part III—Commerce (Main)

Time : Three Hours                                                                                          Maximum: 80 Marks

Answers may be written either in English or in Malayalam.
Part A
all questions in not exceeding 3 or 4 sentences.

Each question carries
2 marks.
1. What is meant by voidable contract?
2. Define Acceptance.
3. What is “Consideration”?
4. Define Pledge.
5. What is meant by warranty?
. Define a company.
7. State three purposes of Pollution Control Act.
8. What is “minutes”?
9. Define proxy.
10.What is meant by compulsory winding up?
(l0x 2=20 marks)
Part B
Answer any
six questions in not exceeding one page.
Each question carries
5 marks.

11.Define coercion. What are the essential characteristics of coercion?
12. Examine the remedies for breach of contract.
13. List the rights of surety.
14. Enumerate the duties of a bailor.
15.Write a note on Articles of Association.
16. List any ten contents of prospectus of a company.
17.When the membership can be terminated by a company?
18. Write note on Consumer Protection Act.
(6 x 5 = 30 marks)
Turn over
2 G6003

Part C
Answer any three questions in not exceeding three pages.
Each question carries
10 marks.

19.Define Contract. Explain the essentials of a valid contract.
20. How an agency can be created ? Explain.
21. Enumerate the. rights of seller and buyer as per sale of Goods Act.
22. Explain the clauses of Memorandum of Association.
23. Explain various kinds of company meetings.

(3 x 10
= 30 marks)
B.Com Question paper

Sunday, 21 April 2013


mg university previous year question paper goto

E 3179                                     (Pages 3)                                  Reg. No . ………..


Second Semester 
[For B.Sc. Botany and Biotechnology (Double Main)]
Time : Three Hours                                                                  Maximum Weight : 25
Part A 
Answer all questions.
1 each for a bunch of 4 questions.

1 Which of the following is primary data ?
(a) Published data ..(b) Personal interview
(c) Private publication. (d) Journals and newspapers.
2 Mode is:
(a) Middle most value. (b) Most frequent value.
(c) Least frequent value. (d) None of these.
3 If the coefficient of correlation is zero the slope of a linear regression line will be:
(a) Positive. (b) Negative.
(c) Positive or negative. (d) None of these.
4 The point of intersection of the less than and the more than ‘ogive’ corresponds to;
(a) The mean. (b) The geometric mean. 
(c) The median. (d) None of the above.